Download E-books Beautiful Death: Jewish Poetry and Martyrdom in Medieval France (Jews, Christians, and Muslims from the Ancient to the Modern World) PDF

By Susan L. Einbinder

When Crusader armies on their option to the Holy Land attacked Jewish groups within the Rhine Valley, many Jews selected suicide over dying by the hands of Christian mobs. With their defiant deaths, the medieval Jewish martyr used to be born. With the literary commemoration of the sufferers, Jewish martyrology undefined. Beautiful Death examines the evolution of a long-neglected corpus of Hebrew poetry, the laments reflecting the explicit stipulations of Jewish existence in northern France. The poems provide perception into lifestyle and into the methods medieval French Jews answered to persecution. additionally they recommend that poetry used to be used to motivate resistance to intensifying pressures to convert.

The proficient Jewish elite in northern France was once hugely acculturated. Their poetry--particularly that rising from the leading edge Tosafist schools--reflects their engagement with the vernacular renaissance unfolding round them, in addition to awake and subconscious absorption of Christian well known ideals and hagiographical conventions. whilst, their amazing poems sign an more and more harsh repudiation of Christianity's sacred symbols and ideology. They exhibit a fancy courting to Christian tradition as Jews internalized parts of medieval tradition even whereas expressing a strong revulsion opposed to the types and ideology of Christian life.

This gracefully written learn crosses conventional limitations of heritage and literature and of Jewish and common medieval scholarship. concentrating on particular incidents of persecution and the literary commemorations they produced, it deals certain insights into the ancient stipulations within which those poems have been written and performed.

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Thibaut of Champagne, pp. 232–33 (song no. 54). seventy six. Jordan, 1992, p. sixty three; David Berger, 1979, p. 302; Yerushalmi, 1970, pp. 357–63. On Christian literary reflections of Marian devotion, see additionally Mooney, pp. 52–77 and esp. pp. 67–70. seventy seven. Jeremy Cohen (1999c, p. 319) reads the poem’s parable of the king who weeps with foreknowledge of his son’s demise equally, as a counterpoint to the Christian story of the final Supper. seventy eight. Seliខhot, Minhag Ashkenaz (Salonika, 1550), f. 176. My because of Herbert Zafren and Noni Rudavsky of the Hebrew Union collage Klau library, who so generously aided me in finding this and different resources within the Klau assortment. seventy nine. See Zunz, 1865, p. 591; Salfeld, p. 353. Salfeld tentatively identified the writer with the Solomon b. Joseph who composed a lament for the martyrs of Anjou; see under. eighty. Isa. 62:7; Mic. 1:8. eighty one. Num. 11:19; Mic. 1:8. eighty two. Ezek. 7:17 or 21:12. The copyist has erred, substituting libi bam for lemayim. Libi. eighty three. Gen. 31:29. eighty four. Cf. Ezek. 8:14, the place Tammuz, even if, is the identify of a crops god who dies and revives every year. eighty five. Isa. 60:19. Yufaru is unattested biblically, however the verb is frequently utilized in conjunction with b’rit (to violate . . . the covenant); observe using berit in v. 7. ninety six NOTES TO bankruptcy three 86. playstation . 137:7. 87. The verse turns out to consult activity 3:23 (for my sighing comes ahead of my bread). 88. Isa. 33:7; Jer. 31:14–15 (‫ ס‬RSV 31:15). Cf. additionally Gen. 37:55. 89. Lev. 13:45; 21:10 and Judg. 16:16 with Gen. 27:46. A ninety. Halatz hខ alifatam— hខ alaខz is mostly used with footwear, no longer garments (Deut. 25:9; Isa. 20:2), yet n. b. the start of Benjamin’s v. 14. ninety one. evaluate Ezek. 34:6. ninety two. the sunshine of lifestyles, i. e. , the Torah. ninety three. i've got reversed the order of the attributes. actually, the verse reads “for you're one that dons vengeance and who's jam-packed with wrath. ” playstation . 74:10, 18, and evaluate playstation . 74:7–8 (they have set Your sanctuary afire). For lovesh neqamot, cf. Isa. 59:17 (and n. b. back the context, God will see that there's no justice in the world and intervene). For ba’al hខ emah (and along side naqam), see Nah. 1:2, which Rashi back glosses with admire to the destruction of the Temple and the exile to Babylonia. ninety four. playstation . 79:12. ninety five. Cf. playstation . 80:6; Num. 9:18. ninety six. Urbach, 1955, p. ninety four. ninety seven. For Solomon b. Simhah, ខ see the subsequent bankruptcy. For extra approximately Meir, see Einbinder, 2000b. ninety eight. Habermann, 1945a; Schirmann, 1939, pp. 25–74; Bernfeld; plus the laments integrated in Salfeld, and extra lately in Goldschmidt and Fraenkel. ninety nine. Zunz dated Moses bar Nathan’s lament, “Mimeiខzar zខ a’aqti,” to 1327; see Leser Landshuth, p. 256. despite the fact that, one of the manuscript assets Goldschmidt and Fraenkel cite for the poem are Parma 654, a Burgundy maខhzor copied in 1304 and Oxf. Bodl. Arch-Seld. A. three (Neubauer 1159), a thirteenth-century codex. a hundred. Ivan Marcus means that the excellence among scroll and e-book can be iconographical, that's, that the Jewish authors meant a dead ringer for Christians destroying sacred scrolls as an iconic illustration of Christian enmity for Judaism (symbolized by means of the scrolls of the Law). whereas he continues to be much less confident through my gender contrast, he is of the same opinion that the prose texts (both 1096 and Ephraim’s Sefer Zekhirah) depict the desecration of scrolls, no longer codices, and that the elevated depiction of the latter may possibly certainly correlate to an elevated Christian information of the life and significance of the Oral legislation in Jewish existence (private verbal exchange, September 6, 2000).

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